IV.8 CARBON MONOXIDE
IV.8.1 Air pollution caused by carbon monoxide in 2016
Similar to previous years, the 8-hour pollution limit value for carbon monoxide (CO) was not exceeded in the Czech Republic in 2016 at any of the 23 locations for which a sufficient amount of measured data was available for evaluating the air quality (Tab. XIII.23). Overall, CO was measured at 24 locations. The highest daily 8-hour average CO concentration was measured at the Ostrava-Rad- vanice ZÚ location (4,397 μg.m-3), where the pollution limit value is 10,000 μg.m-3. This is a very exposed part of the city with impact from industry, traffic and local emission sources. The second highest 8-hour CO concentration was measured at the Tobolka-Čertovy schody location (3,038 μg.m-3), where it can be expected that the values will be affected by the nearby Vápenka Čertovy schody lime plant. CO is released during lime production. The third highest 8-hour CO concentration was measu- red at the Bohumín station (2,824 μg.m-3), which is classified as a traffic station, i.e. the measured concentrations are affected by traffic.
Elevated CO concentrations occur primarily at urban locations affected by traffic and thus measurement of this substance was retained at stations classified as traffic stations. At urban and rural background locations, the CO concentrations vary well below the pollution limit values.
IV.8.2 Trends in carbon monoxide
A decreasing trend in the maximum daily 8-hour CO concentrations can be seen at most locations in the Czech Republic in Fig. IV.8.1. The CO concentrations were slightly lower in 2016 than in the previous year. A decrease in CO concentrations occurred, e.g., at the Otrokovice-město, Ostrava-Mariánské hory, Prague 2-Legerova (hot spot), Brno-Úvoz (hot spot), Plzeň-centre and Plzeň-Slovany locations. On the other hand, an increase in CO concentrations was recorded at other stations, e.g. Tobolka- Čertovy schody, Ostrava-Českobratrská (hot spot), Brno-Zvonařka, Ostrava-Přívoz and Beroun.
IV.8.3 Carbon monoxide emissions
Carbon monoxide is a combustion product of carbon-containing fuels at low temperatures with an insufficient amount of combustion air. The greatest amounts of CO are formed in sector 1A4bi – Residential: Stationary, which produced 49.8% of national emissions in 2015 (Fig. IV.8.2). Other important sources included sectors 1A2a – Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Iron and steel (17.6%), 1A3bi – Road transport: Passenger cars (8.7%) and 1A3biii – Road transport: Heavy duty vehicles and buses (4.0%). The decreasing trend in CO emissions in 2007–2015 was caused primarily by natural renewal of the vehicle fleet and a reduction in the production of iron and steel after 2007. In relation to the predominant effect of sector 1A4bi, this trend is substantially affected by temperature variations during the heating season (Fig. IV.8.3).
In the individual regions of the Czech Republic, the
contributions of the individual emission sources
differ depending to the composition of sources in the
given area. Because of the predominant effect of the
local heating sector, CO emissions in the Czech
Republic are distributed over the entire territory of
residential buildings. The impact of transportation
dominated along motorways, roadways with high
traffic levels and in the larger urban units. The large
amount of CO emissions in the O/K/F-M agglomeration
is derived from the production of iron and
steel (Fig. IV.8.4).