VI. SMOG WARNING AND REGULATORY SYSTEM
CHMI authorized by the Ministry of the Environment operates the
Smog warning and regulatory system (SVRS). Information provided
through this system serve both for informing on the
extraordinary level of ambient air pollution (smog situation)
and for the regulation (reduction) of pollutants released from
selected sources markedly influencing ambient air quality in the
given territory. The monitored pollutants include PM10 suspended
particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and
ground-level ozone (O3).
Starting from 1 September 2012 the operation of SVRS is newly set down by the Air Protection Act and by the Decree No. 330/2012 Coll.1 The main changes in comparison to the previous legislation are described in CHMI yearbook for the year 2012 (CHMI 2013a). Smog situations and regulations (alert for ozone) are announced on the basis of the threshold values exceedances. The rules laying down the operation of SVRS are presented in Table VI.1. The list of areas and representative stations was originally set out in the Bulletin of the Ministry of the Environment No. 9/2012. However, on 31 December 2012 SO2 and NO2 measurements at the station Třinec-Kosmos were finished and on 8 April 2013 the station Bohumín was shut. As a consequence, the Třinec area was included again into the agglomeration of Ostrava/Karviná/Frýdek-Místek (O/K/F-M) for the measurements of SO2 and NO2. The updated list of SVRS areas and representative stations for PM10, SO2 and NO2 is published in the Bulletin of the Ministry of the Environment No. 9, 10/2013. Fig. VI.1 and Fig. VI.2 shows the SVRS areas and representative stations for PM10 and O3.
The system of the current rules results in the practice that the smog situations and regulations for PM10 are announced and cancelled with delay in regard to the actual development of concentrations. Therefore CHMI prepared a draft amendment of Annex No. 6 to Air Protection Act aimed at the elimination of this drawback.
PM10, SO2 and NO2
In 2013 smog situations were announced only due to the
exceedance of threshold values for PM10 suspended particles.
Similarly as in the previous years, there was not announced any
smog situation for SO2 and NO2.
In total 20 smog situations for PM10 were announced in 2013 lasting in total 56 days (1,349 hours) and one regulation lasting 2 days (33 hours; Table VI.2).
Smog situations were announced most frequently in the territory of the agglomeration of O/K/F-M without Třinec area, in Třinec area and in the Moravia-Silesia zone. The most extensive announcement as concerns the territory (including also Bohemia territory) occurred in the second half of January, when smog situation was valid in eight SVRS areas simultaneously. The last smog situation ended on 19 November (Fig. VI.3, Table VI.3).
Besides smog situations, all SVRS stations recorded also the exceedances of the daily limit value for PM10. In the cold half of the year (January–March and October–December) the best situation was in the Karlovy Vary region (5 % of days), Vysočina region and South Bohemia region. On the contrary, the greatest number of days with daily limit value exceedances was recorded in the agglomeration of O/K/F-M without Třinec area (52 % of days), Central Bohemia region and Ústí nad Labem region (Table VI.4).
Ground-level ozone (O3)
In 2013 due to high concentrations of ground-level ozone 16 smog
situations in total were announced; their total duration was 23
days (553 hours;
Table VI.5). The first smog situation was
announced on 25 April in the territory of the South Bohemia
region. The rather extensive announcements, as concerns the size
of the territory, occurred in early August, when smog situations
were announced in four SVRS areas simultaneously. The last smog
situation ended on 9 August.
Smog situation was not announced in the following regions: Hradec Králové region, Pardubice region, Karlovy Vary region, Zlín region, Olomouc region, Vysočina region and the agglomeration of O/K/F-M. The alert threshold value was not exceeded in any area (Table VI.5).
Besides the exceedance of the threshold values also daily limit value was exceeded (the first exceedance at the SVRS stations occurred on 28 March and the last one on 8 September). The best situation in the warm half of the year (April–September) was in this regard in the agglomeration of Brno where the limit value for O3 was exceeded only in 10 % of days, and then in the Karlovy Vary region, Pardubice region and Liberec region. On the contrary, most frequent exceedances of the limit value were recorded in the South Bohemia region (28 % of days; Table VI.7).
Tab. VI.4 Concentrations of PM10 from 1 January to 31 March and from 1 October to 31 December 2013 (number of days with the exceedance of the limit value/threshold value and the maximum concentrations)
Fig. VI.1 SVRS areas and representative stations for PM10
Fig. VI.2 SVRS areas and representative stations for O3
Fig. VI.3 Smog situations and regulations for PM10 in 2013 in the SVRS areas in which at least one smog situation was announced
1Decree No. 330/2012 Coll., on the method of assessment and evaluation of ambient air pollution level, on the extent of informing the public on the level of ambient air pollution and during smog situations.